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HYDROGEN

Q&As

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Handy Definitions used in the Hydrogen Economy

Frequently AskedQuestions

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What is Autarchy?

Autarchy, also spelled as autarky, is the German word for Autonomy and which is often applied to Off-grid or Standalone systems that are fully independent of Grid Connection

 

What is Bar when measuring pressure?

One bar is equivalent to 100kPa and is commonly used to measure atmospheric pressure as well as the pressure of gases in industrial processes.  The Solid State Storage system for Hydrogen operates at around 40 bar which is considered a fairly safe operating pressure.  Hydrogen Gas is generally stored and very high pressures that range from 350-700 Bar in order to obtain the required amount of Hydrogen in a reasonable sized cylinder.  High Pressure Hydrogen Storage comes with  far greater level of complexity when it comes to safety and increased levels of expertise and cost associated with very high pressure Hydrogen compressors. 

How do you measure Hydrogen Battery Storage Capacity?

The capacity of a hydrogen storage system is usually measured in terms of its weight of hydrogen and is typically expressed in units such as kilograms (kg). The higher the storage capacity of the system, the more energy it can potentially provide when the hydrogen is converted into electricity through the fuel cell.

What does Hydrogen Battery Storage Life mean?

Hydrogen battery storage life refers to the amount of time that a hydrogen battery can retain its charge without significant degradation or loss of capacity. In other words, it is the length of time that a hydrogen battery can store hydrogen and maintain its ability to provide electrical power when needed.  Currently our system measures no degradation in over 25 years.

What does H2 stand for?

Hydrogen is Scientifically shortened as H2 and is a colourless, odourless, and tasteless gas. Because H2 is lighter than air, it hovers higher than the earth’s atmosphere. Therefore, it cannot be found in nature and must be created by humans. Hydrogen is produced by separating it from other elements and collecting the vapour.

What is Biomass?

Biomass refers to organic matter derived from living or recently living organisms that can be used as a source of energy. Examples of biomass include wood, agricultural crops and residues, municipal solid waste, and animal waste.

Biomass can be converted into various forms of energy, including heat, electricity, and liquid fuels, through a variety of processes such as combustion, gasification, and anaerobic digestion. Biomass energy is considered to be some what renewable because the organic matter used to produce it can be regrown or replenished.

What is Black and Brown Hydrogen?

Using black coal or lignite (brown coal) in the hydrogen-making process, these black and brown hydrogen are the absolute opposite of green hydrogen in the hydrogen spectrum and the most environmentally damaging. Just to confuse things, any hydrogen made from fossil fuels through the process of ‘gasification’ is sometimes called black or brown hydrogen interchangeably. 

What is Blue Hydrogen?

Blue hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas, using a process called steam reforming, which brings together natural gas and heated water in the form of steam. The output is hydrogen, but carbon dioxide is also produced as a by-product. So, the definition of blue hydrogen includes the use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) to trap and store this carbon.  Blue hydrogen is sometimes described as ‘low-carbon hydrogen’, as the steam reforming process doesn’t actually avoid the creation of greenhouse gases. 

Li Battery Capacity loss

Lithium-ion batteries, like all batteries, will experience some capacity loss over time and usage. Capacity loss in a lithium-ion battery increases with time until the battery life is extinguished (8-10 years)

 

What is Clean Hydrogen?

Clean hydrogen is produced using renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, or hydroelectric power, or through a process called electrolysis, where water is split into hydrogen and oxygen using an electric current. Clean hydrogen can also be produced from fossil fuels using carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, which captures and stores the carbon dioxide emissions generated during the production process.

What is Clean Energy?

Clean energy refers to energy that is produced using renewable or low-carbon sources, and that does not generate significant greenhouse gas emissions or other pollutants during its production or use.

What is a Data Storage Center Back-up System?

A data storage energy backup system is a system that provides uninterrupted power to data storage devices during power outages or disruptions. These back-up systems ensure that data storage devices continue to operate normally, and that data is not lost or corrupted due to power failures or interruptions.

What is Decarbonisation?

Decarbonisation refers to the process of reducing or eliminating the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

What is Decentralilsation?

Decentralisation refers to the process of transferring power generating capacity from very, large scale production facilities that distribute power over long transmission lines to distributed smaller scale power generating systems that deliver power to the local load or community.  A decentralised system using solar power, effectively uses the sun as the "grid" and delivers the power locally where it is made.

What is Renewable Energy Storage?

Renewable energy storage refers to the process of storing energy generated from renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and biomass, for later use. The need for renewable energy storage arises from the fact that these energy sources are intermittent and variable, meaning that they may not always be available when needed.

What is an E-Car Charging Station?

An e-car charging station is a specialised electrical infrastructure that allows electric vehicles (EVs) to charge their batteries. These stations are typically installed in public places such as parking lots, streets, and highways, and they are also increasingly being installed in private homes and commercial buildings.

What is Eco-tourism?

The principles of ecotourism include minimizing the environmental impact of tourism activities, supporting conservation efforts, promoting sustainable development, respecting local cultures and traditions, and providing economic benefits to local communities. Ecotourism can provide a source of income and employment for local communities, which can help to reduce poverty and improve living standards.

What is Ferro-titanium?

Ferro-titanium is an alloy that is primarily composed of iron and titanium. It is produced by mixing titanium scrap and iron together and then melting them in a furnace. The resulting alloy has a high strength-to-weight ratio and is highly resistant to corrosion.

What is Fossil Fuel?

Fossil fuels are natural resources such as coal, oil, and natural gas that were formed over millions of years from the remains of ancient plants and animals. Fossil fuels are considered non-renewable resources, meaning that they are finite and will eventually be depleted. They are also a major source of energy for human civilisation, powering transportation, industry, and electricity generation.

What is an Electrolyser?

An electrolyser, also known as an electrolytic cell, is a device that uses electrical energy to split water or other liquids into their component elements. Electrolysis is a chemical reaction in which an electric current is passed through a solution, causing the ions in the solution to move towards the electrodes and undergo chemical reactions.

In the case of an hydrogen electrolyser, the solution is typically water, and the electrodes are made of a conducting material such as platinum or titanium. When an electric current is passed through the water, it causes the water molecules to split into hydrogen and oxygen gas through a process known as water electrolysis. This process occurs as follows:

At the anode (+), oxygen gas (O2) is produced: 2H2O(l) → O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e−

At the cathode (-), hydrogen gas (H2) is produced: 4H+(aq) + 4e− → 2H2(g)

What is Electrochemical?

Electrochemical refers to a process or device that involves the transfer of electrons between chemical species. In an electrochemical reaction, chemical energy is converted to electrical energy, or vice versa.

What is Green Steel?

Green steel, also known as low-carbon steel or sustainable steel, is steel that is produced using processes that are designed to minimize the environmental impact of steel production and reduce carbon emissions. Traditional steel production is a major contributor to global carbon emissions, accounting for around 7% of global emissions. Green steel aims to reduce this impact by using renewable energy sources, carbon capture technologies, and other sustainable practices.

What is Green Transition?

The green transition refers to the shift towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly economy and society. It is a process of transitioning from an economy based on fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources to one that is based on renewable energy, sustainable production and consumption, and efficient use of resources.

What is Green Energy?

Green energy refers to energy that is generated from renewable sources, such as wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, and biomass, that have minimal or no impact on the environment and are replenished naturally.

What is Green Hydrogen?

Green hydrogen is a type of hydrogen that is produced through electrolysis, which splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. This process is powered by renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind, meaning that no fossil fuels are used in the production of the hydrogen. This makes it a sustainable and clean form of energy.

What is Grey Hydrogen?

Currently, this is the most common form of hydrogen production. Grey hydrogen is created from natural gas, or methane, using steam methane reformation but without capturing the greenhouse gases made in the process. Grey hydrogen is essentially the same as blue hydrogen, but without the use of carbon capture and storage.

What is Green Tourism?

Green tourism, also known as sustainable tourism or eco-tourism, refers to travel and tourism that is conducted in an environmentally responsible and sustainable way. It involves minimizing the negative impact of tourism on the environment and local communities, while also providing social and economic benefits to those communities.

What is a Fuel Cell?

A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that generates electricity by converting the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant directly into electrical energy. Fuel cells are similar to batteries in that they generate electricity through an electrochemical reaction, but unlike batteries, fuel cells require a continuous supply of fuel and oxidant to operate.

Fuel cells typically use hydrogen as the fuel and oxygen from the air to generate electricity and water

What is a Hydride?

A hydride is a chemical compound that contains hydrogen and one or more other elements, usually metals or nonmetals. Hydrides can be classified into two main categories: ionic hydrides and covalent hydrides.

What is Hydrogen?

Hydrogen is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas at room temperature and pressure. It has a very low density and is non-metallic.

That does H2 mean?

H2 is the chemical formula for hydrogen gas, which consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded covalently. It is the simplest and lightest molecule in existence, with a molecular weight of 2.0159 g/mol. It is the most abundant chemical substance in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass. H2 is an important fuel source and can be used in fuel cells to produce electricity, with water as the only byproduct.

What is a Hydrogen Refueling Station?

that use fuel cells to generate electricity. These stations compress, store, and dispense hydrogen gas to fuel cell vehicles (FCVs).

What is the Hydrogen Market?

The hydrogen market refers to the production, distribution, and consumption of hydrogen gas for various industrial and energy-related applications. The market for hydrogen is growing rapidly as it is being increasingly recognized as a key component of the transition to a low-carbon economy. Hydrogen is considered a clean fuel because it produces only water as a byproduct when used in fuel cells.

What is Hydro Power?

Hydro power, also known as hydroelectric power, is electricity generated from the energy of falling or flowing water. Hydro power is a renewable and sustainable energy source that uses the natural flow of water to turn turbines and generators, which then produce electricity.

What are Ionic hydrides?

also known as saline hydrides, are formed by the reaction of hydrogen with highly electropositive metals, such as alkali metals or alkaline earth metals. These hydrides typically have the formula MH, where M represents the metal.

What is Lattice Frame Work?

A lattice framework is a type of structural framework made up of a network of interconnected structural elements, such as beams or rods, that form a repeating pattern. The lattice structure is characterized by its open, lightweight design, which makes it strong and stable while minimizing the amount of material needed.  Hydrogen, when stored as a solid metal hydride requires the metal to be structured as a lattice therefore providing interstitial sites for the Hydrogen to occupy.  Hydrogen molecules stored in this manner can store closer than they can be stored in their liquid form.

What is Li Battery?

A lithium-ion battery (LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery that uses lithium ions to store and release electrical energy. LIBs are widely used in electronic devices such as smartphones, laptops, and tablets, as well as in electric vehicles (EVs) and renewable energy storage systems.

What does Low Carbon mean?

Low carbon refers to a way of reducing or minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2).

What is Metal Hydride?

Metal hydrides are a type of compound formed by the reaction of a metal element with hydrogen gas. They are characterized by their ability to store and release hydrogen, which makes them useful for a variety of applications, including hydrogen storage and fuel cells.

what is Net Zero?

Net zero refers to a state where the amount of greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere is equal to the amount of emissions removed or offset, resulting in no net increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

What does Off the Grid mean?

Going "off the grid" refers to the act of disconnecting from the electrical grid, which is the centralised system that distributes electricity from power plants to consumers via power lines.

What is Pink Hydrogen?

Pink hydrogen is generated through electrolysis powered by nuclear energy. Nuclear-produced hydrogen can also be referred to as purple hydrogen or red hydrogen.

What is Photovoltac Power?

Photovoltaic (PV) refers to the conversion of light energy into electrical energy using a device called a solar cell. When sunlight (or other light) is absorbed by the material in a solar cell, it creates an electric current. This process is also known as the photovoltaic effect.

What is Renewable Energy?

Energy that is generated from natural sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy is often considered to be clean energy because it does not produce any harmful emissions or pollutants. Renewable energy sources include solar, wind, biomass, hydro, geothermal, and ocean energy. 

What is Remote power supplies?

Remote power supplies refer to the provision of electricity to locations that are not connected to the main power grid. This can include remote or rural communities, off-grid homes, remote industrial sites, or other locations that are far from the nearest power grid connection.

Waht is Renewable Storage?

Renewable energy storage refers to the ability to store energy generated from renewable sources, such as solar or wind power, for later use. Renewable energy sources are intermittent, meaning that their availability depends on factors such as the weather or time of day. Therefore, energy storage is an essential component of a renewable energy system, as it allows us to store excess energy when it is available and use it when it is needed.

What is Solar energy?

Solar energy refers to the energy that is derived from the sun's radiation. This energy can be captured and converted into usable forms of energy, such as electricity or heat, through various technologies, such as solar panels or solar thermal collectors.

What is Solar/Hydro ?

Solar hydro refers to the combination of solar energy and hydroelectric power generation. This technology involves the use of solar panels to power a water pump, which then pumps water to a higher elevation, creating potential energy. When the water is released back down to a lower elevation, it flows through a turbine, generating electricity.

What is Solid State Hydrogen Storage (SSHS)?

Solid State Hydrogen Storage (SSHS) refers to the storage of hydrogen in solid materials, such as metal hydrides or chemical hydrides. Hydrogen is considered a promising energy carrier because it can be produced from renewable sources, and when used in fuel cells, it produces only water as a byproduct. However, hydrogen gas can be difficult to store and transport.

What is The Grid?

The Grid refers to the interconnected system of power generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure that delivers electricity to homes, businesses, and other users. The grid is a complex network of power plants, transformers, substations, transmission lines, and distribution lines that work together to provide electricity to users across a wide area.

What does traditional Battery mean?

A traditional battery, also known as a primary battery, is a type of electrochemical cell that generates electrical energy through a chemical reaction. It consists of two electrodes, a positive electrode (cathode) and a negative electrode (anode), separated by an electrolyte.

What is Turquoise Hydrogen?

This is a new entry in the hydrogen colour charts and production has yet to be proven at scale. Turquoise hydrogen is made using a process called methane pyrolysis to produce hydrogen and solid carbon. In the future, turquoise hydrogen may be valued as a low-emission hydrogen, dependent on the thermal process being powered with renewable energy and the carbon being permanently stored or used.

What is Wind Energy?

Wind energy refers to the energy that is generated from wind, which is a renewable and clean source of energy. Wind turbines are used to capture the kinetic energy of the wind and convert it into electrical energy that can be used to power homes, businesses, and other facilities.

What is Yellow Hydrogen?

Yellow hydrogen is a relatively new phrase for hydrogen made through electrolysis using solar power.

What is White Hydrogen?

White hydrogen is a naturally occurring, geological hydrogen found in underground deposits and created through fracking. There are no strategies to exploit this hydrogen at present.

What does Zero Emissions mean?

Zero emissions refers to the complete elimination of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, from human activities. This is typically achieved through the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and hydropower, which do not emit carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases during power generation.

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